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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Apr;53(5):574-81. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181d3521f.

Resistance to Simian HIV infection is associated with high plasma interleukin-8, RANTES and Eotaxin in a macaque model of repeated virus challenges.

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From the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.


Animal models for research on susceptibility to HIV are currently not available. Here we explore whether a macaque model of repeated low-dose rectal or vaginal virus challenges could be employed. We tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to Simian HIV is not merely stochastic in this model but rather is associated with identifiable host factors. Forty macaques required a median of 3.5 SHIVSF162P3 challenges for infection. We studied the association of their susceptibility with 13 predisposing plasma cytokines/chemokines (RANTES, Eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-7, MIP-1beta, TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-8, interferon-gamma, IL-17, IL-1beta, IL-6). Higher plasma RANTES, IL-8, and Eotaxin were associated with lower susceptibility, that is, higher resistance to infection. In a group of macaques with low IL-8 and RANTES, a median 3 exposures were required to infect; whereas, when either IL-8 or RANTES were high, a median 12 exposures were required. Thus, susceptibility was associated with identifiable discrete host factors and was not stochastic. In addition, the macaque model identified key human resistance factors (RANTES, Eotaxin), but also revealed a novel association with resistance (IL-8). Future direct evaluation of these or other factors in the animal model may be beneficial for developing new immunomodulation strategies for HIV prevention.

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