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Hum Gene Ther. 2010 Jul;21(7):829-42. doi: 10.1089/hum.2009.172.

Evaluation of hydrodynamic limb vein injections in nonhuman primates.

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Department of Pediatrics and Department of Medical Genetics, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.


The administration route is emerging as a critical aspect of nonviral and viral vector delivery to muscle, so as to enable gene therapy for disorders such as muscular dystrophy. Although direct intramuscular routes were used initially, intravascular routes are garnering interest because of their ability to target multiple muscles at once and to increase the efficiency of delivery and expression. For the delivery of naked plasmid DNA, our group has developed a hydrodynamic, limb vein procedure that entails placing a tourniquet over the proximal part of the target limb to block all blood flow and injecting the gene vector rapidly in a large volume so as to enable the gene vector to be extravasated and to access the myofibers. The present study was conducted in part to optimize the procedure in preparation for a human clinical study. Various injection parameters such as the effect of papaverine preinjection, tourniquet inflation pressure and duration, and rate of injection were evaluated in rats and nonhuman primates. In addition, the safety of the procedure was further established by determining the effect of the procedure on the neuromuscular and vascular systems. The results from these studies provide additional evidence that the procedure is well tolerated and they provide a foundation on which to formulate the procedure for a human clinical study.

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