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Int Endod J. 2010 Mar;43(3):200-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01659.x.

Micro-CT evaluation of residual material in canals filled with Activ GP or GuttaFlow following removal with NiTi instruments.

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Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontology, University Medical Center, Giessen and Marburg, Germany.



To assess the efficacy of removing Activ GP or GuttaFlow from canals using NiTi instruments.


Root canals in 55 extracted pre-molars were prepared to apical size 40, 0.04 taper. The teeth were imaged with micro-CT, and 30 teeth selected that had consistent apical size and taper of the shaped canals. They were randomly assigned to root filling with either the glass-ionomer-based ActivGP system (n = 15) or the polyvinylsiloxane-based GuttaFlow system (n = 15). After 2 weeks, canals were retreated stepwise with size 40-50 EndoSequence 0.04 taper instruments. Micro-CT scans (8 mum) were taken after use of each instrument to detect root filling residue in the coronal, middle and apical segment, and the retreatment time recorded. Residue, expressed as percentage of canal surface area, was compared between groups with t-tests, and within groups with repeated measures anova and Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons. Retreatment time was analysed with one-way anova.


The percentage of sealer residue-coated canal surface was consistently highest (P < 0.001) in the apical third of canals, and it did not differ significantly between the two root filling groups. Stepwise enlargement from size 40 to 50 significantly decreased the amount of sealer residue in both groups (P < 0.001). Retreatment time did not differ significantly between groups.


Both root fillings with ActivGP and GuttaFlow were removed with nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Enlargement of canals up to two sizes beyond the pre-retreatment size was necessary to minimize the amount of sealer remaining.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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