Send to

Choose Destination
Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32(17):1414-8. doi: 10.3109/09638280903514697.

Evaluation and treatment of synkinesis with botulinum toxin following facial nerve palsy.

Author information

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pavia, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.



To assess the effect and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in reducing synkinesis in aberrant facial nerve regeneration (following facial paralysis).


A total of 55 sessions of BTX-A (Botox) infiltration were performed on 30 patients (23 female) with synkinesis after facial palsy. Each subject was injected with 2.5 units of BTX-A in each injection site (the sites were chosen on a case-by-case basis). The synkinetic muscles targeted include: orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus major, depressor labii inferioris, platysma, healthy frontalis and healthy corrugator supercilii. The patients were examined using the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System, both before the BTX-A treatment and after an average of 35 days.


All 30 patients experienced improvement to the synkinesis after treatment. Total scores: median pre-BTX-A: 40; post 53 p = 0.004. Resting symmetry scores: mean pre-BTX-A -7.1; post: -3.5; median pre -5 [interquartile range (IQR) -10 to -5]; post: -5 (IQR -5 to 0); p = 0.0001. Symmetry of voluntary movement median pre-BTX-A: 56 post 60 p = 0.10. Synkinesis scores: median pre-BTX-A: -9 post -3 p < 0.0001. Mean duration of improvement was 4 months.


BTX-A injection treatment was effective in reducing facial synkinesis, thus improving facial expression symmetry both at rest and in voluntary movements.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center