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Cancer. 1991 May 15;67(10):2664-70.

Tobacco, alcohol, and coffee and cancer of the pancreas. A population-based, case-control study in Quebec, Canada.

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Epidemiology Research Unit, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, Quebec, Canada.


A population-based, case-control study of pancreatic cancer was carried out in greater Montreal between 1984 and 1988. A total of 179 cases and 239 population-based controls were interviewed. This study was part of the SEARCH program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization. A strong positive association was observed between total cigarette smoking and risk of pancreatic cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 7.83). The OR for current smokers in the highest quintile of number of cigarettes was 5.15 compared with 3.99 for exsmokers. Those who consumed alcohol were in general at lower risk than nondrinkers. Coffee drinkers were collectively at lower risk than nondrinkers, particularly when coffee was consumed with meals, not on empty stomach.

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