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J Neurosci. 2010 Feb 10;30(6):2300-10. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5724-09.2010.

Hypocretins regulate the anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine and induce reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior.

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1
Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Emerging evidence suggests that the hypocretinergic system is involved in addictive behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of these hypothalamic neuropeptides in anxiety-like responses of nicotine and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. Acute nicotine (0.8 mg/kg, s.c.) induced anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze and activated the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) as revealed by c-Fos expression. Pretreatment with the hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr-1) antagonist SB334867 or preprohypocretin gene deletion blocked both nicotine effects. In the PVN, SB334867 also prevented the activation of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons, which expressed Hcrtr-1. In addition, an increase of the percentage of c-Fos-positive hypocretin cells in the perifornical and dorsomedial hypothalamic (PFA/DMH) areas was found after nicotine (0.8 mg/kg, s.c.) administration. Intracerebroventricular infusion of hypocretin-1 (Hcrt-1) (0.75 nmol/1 mul) or footshock stress reinstated a previously extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The effects of Hcrt-1 were blocked by SB334867, but not by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin. Moreover, SB334867 did not block CRF-dependent footshock-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking while antalarmin was effective in preventing this nicotine motivational response. Therefore, the Hcrt system interacts with CRF and AVP neurons in the PVN and modulates the anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine whereas Hcrt and CRF play a different role in the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Indeed, Hcrt-1 reinstates nicotine-seeking through a mechanism independent of CRF activation whereas CRF mediates the reinstatement induced by stress.

PMID:
20147556
PMCID:
PMC2829191
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5724-09.2010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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