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J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:254521. doi: 10.1155/2010/254521. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

The role of lipopeptidophosphoglycan in the immune response to Entamoeba histolytica.

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Medical Research Unit on Immunochemistry, Specialties Hospital, National Medical Centre Siglo XXI, Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), 06720 Mexico City, Mexico.


The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPG-activated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a "Pamptigen"), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant.

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