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Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009 Apr;29(2):85-101. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.53126.

Approaches in type 1 diabetes research: A status report.

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1
Anthropological Survey of India, 27-Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata, West-Bengal - 700 016, India.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease with an early age of onset, in which the insulin producing beta cell of the pancreas are destroyed because of autoimmunity. It is the second most common chronic disease in children and account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. India is having an incidence of 10.6 cases/year/100,000, and recent studies indicate that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in India is increasing. However in view of poor health care network, there is no monitoring system in the country. Of the 18 genomic intervals implicated for the risk to develop type 1 diabetes, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.31 has been the major contributor estimated to account for 40-50%, followed by 10% frequency of INS-VNTR at 5' flanking region of the insulin gene on chromosome 11p15.5. However, population studies suggest that > 95% of type 1 diabetes have HLA-DR3 or DR4, or both, and in family studies, sibling pairs affected with type 1 diabetes have a non-random distribution of shared HLA haplotypes. As predisposing genetic factors such as HLA alleles are known, immunological interventions to prevent type 1 diabetes are of great interest. In the present study we have reviewed the status of molecular genetics of the disease and the approaches that need to be adopted in terms of developing patient and suitable control cohorts in the country.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; HLA; Insulin

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