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Vaccine. 2010 Mar 24;28(15):2782-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.049. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Efficacy of inactivated swine influenza virus vaccines against the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

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  • 1Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS, 1920 Dayton Road, Ames, IA 50010, USA.


The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North American H1 SIV, it is unknown if vaccines currently used in U.S. swine would cross-protect against infection with the pandemic A/H1N1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inactivated vaccines prepared with North American swine influenza viruses as well as an experimental homologous A/H1N1 vaccine to prevent infection and disease from 2009 pandemic A/H1N1. All vaccines tested provided partial protection ranging from reduction of pneumonia lesions to significant reduction in virus replication in the lung and nose. The multivalent vaccines demonstrated partial protection; however, none was able to prevent all nasal shedding or clinical disease. An experimental homologous 2009 A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine provided optimal protection with no virus detected from nose or lung at any time point in addition to amelioration of clinical disease. Based on cross-protection demonstrated with the vaccines evaluated in this study, the U.S. swine herd likely has significant immunity to the 2009 A/H1N1 from prior vaccination or natural exposure. However, consideration should be given for development of monovalent homologous vaccines to best protect the swine population thus limiting shedding and the potential transmission of 2009 A/H1N1 from pigs to people.

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