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Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 Mar;10(3):409-20. doi: 10.1517/14712590903563352.

Towards organ printing: engineering an intra-organ branched vascular tree.

Author information

1
Medical University of South Carolina, Bioprinting Research Center, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:

Effective vascularization of thick three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs is a problem in tissue engineering. As in native organs, a tissue-engineered intra-organ vascular tree must be comprised of a network of hierarchically branched vascular segments. Despite this requirement, current tissue-engineering efforts are still focused predominantly on engineering either large-diameter macrovessels or microvascular networks.

AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:

We present the emerging concept of organ printing or robotic additive biofabrication of an intra-organ branched vascular tree, based on the ability of vascular tissue spheroids to undergo self-assembly.

WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN:

The feasibility and challenges of this robotic biofabrication approach to intra-organ vascularization for tissue engineering based on organ-printing technology using self-assembling vascular tissue spheroids including clinically relevantly vascular cell sources are analyzed.

TAKE HOME MESSAGE:

It is not possible to engineer 3D thick tissue or organ constructs without effective vascularization. An effective intra-organ vascular system cannot be built by the simple connection of large-diameter vessels and microvessels. Successful engineering of functional human organs suitable for surgical implantation will require concomitant engineering of a 'built in' intra-organ branched vascular system. Organ printing enables biofabrication of human organ constructs with a 'built in' intra-organ branched vascular tree.

PMID:
20132061
PMCID:
PMC4580374
DOI:
10.1517/14712590903563352
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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