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Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Feb;152A(2):528-36. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33276.

A review of facial image analysis for delineation of the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

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MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa.


The facial anomalies associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), some of which are also present in individuals with less severe forms of the broader category of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are typically identified with the aid of linear distance measurements taken between facial landmarks. Digital facial imaging methods are increasingly being used in syndrome delineation. Distance measurements derived from stereo-photogrammetry and facial surface imaging have been used to study the FAS facial anomalies. Geometric morphometric methods capture the spatial arrangement between landmarks, providing a statistical platform for comparison of facial shapes, and have been shown to hold promise for characterizing the FAS facial shape. We review the progression in the use of imaging and image analysis methods in studies on the facial phenotype associated with FAS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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