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J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Feb;5(2):153-7. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181c8cc0c.

Tgf-beta signaling pathway in lung adenocarcinoma invasion.

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Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.


The histologic distinction between bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and other adenocarcinomas is tissue invasion. The clinical importance of lung adenocarcinoma invasion is supported by several recent studies indicating that the risk of death in nonmucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is significantly lower than that of pure invasive tumors and in tumors with greater than 0.5 cm of fibrosis or linear invasion. Using microarray gene expression profiling of human tumors, dysregulation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling was identified as an important mediator of tumor invasion. Subsequent studies showed that the CC chemokine regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted was up-regulated in invasive tumors and was required for invasion in cells with repressed levels of the transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor. Taken together, these studies illustrate how information gained from global expression profiling of tumors can be used to identify key pathways and genes mediating tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis.

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