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Innate Immun. 2011 Apr;17(2):174-82. doi: 10.1177/1753425909357578. Epub 2010 Jan 25.

Endotoxin, zymosan, and cytokines decrease the expression of the transcription factor, carbohydrate response element binding protein, and its target genes.

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Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California-San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.


Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a recently discovered transcription factor whose levels and activity are increased by glucose leading to the activation of target genes, which include acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and liver-type pyruvate kinase. Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment causes a marked decrease in ChREBP mRNA and protein levels in the liver of mice fed a normal chow diet or in mice fasted for 24 h and then re-fed a high carbohydrate diet. This decrease occurs rapidly and is a sensitive response (half-maximal dose 0.1 μg/mouse). The decrease in ChREBP is accompanied by a decrease in the expression of ChREBP target genes. Zymosan and turpentine treatment also decrease hepatic ChREBP levels and the expression of its target genes. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) decrease liver ChREBP expression both in vivo and in Hep3B cells in culture. Finally, LPS decreased ChREBP expression in muscle and adipose tissue. These studies demonstrate that ChREBP is down-regulated during the acute phase response resulting in alterations in the expression of ChREBP regulated target genes. Thus, ChREBP joins a growing list of transcription factors that are regulated during the acute phase response.

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