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Nano Lett. 2010 Feb 10;10(2):726-31. doi: 10.1021/nl9040719.

Direct-write piezoelectric polymeric nanogenerator with high energy conversion efficiency.

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Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


Nanogenerators capable of converting energy from mechanical sources to electricity with high effective efficiency using low-cost, nonsemiconducting, organic nanomaterials are attractive for many applications, including energy harvesters. In this work, near-field electrospinning is used to direct-write poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical poling characteristics to produce piezoelectric properties. Under mechanical stretching, nanogenerators have shown repeatable and consistent electrical outputs with energy conversion efficiency an order of magnitude higher than those made of PVDF thin films. The early onset of the nonlinear domain wall motions behavior has been identified as one mechanism responsible for the apparent high piezoelectricity in nanofibers, rendering them potentially advantageous for sensing and actuation applications.

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