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Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1444-50. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.12.034. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China.

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Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.


Sewage samples from 4 hospitals, 1 nursery, 1 slaughter house, 1 wastewater treatment plant and 5 source water samples of Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir were analyzed for macrolide, lincosamide, trimethoprim, fluorouinolone, sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics by online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the concentration of ofloxacin (OFX) in hospital was the highest among all water environments ranged from 1.660 microg/L to 4.240 microg/L and norfloxacin (NOR, 0.136-1.620 microg/L), ciproflaxacin (CIP, ranged from 0.011 microg/L to 0.136 microg/L), trimethoprim (TMP, 0.061-0.174 microg/L) were commonly detected. Removal range of antibiotics in the wastewater treatment plant was 18-100% and the removal ratio of tylosin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 100%. Relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for tylosin (TYL), oxytetracycline (OXY) and tetracycline (TET)(100%), while lower removal efficiencies were observed for Trimethoprim (TMP, 1%), Epi-iso-chlorotetracycline (EICIC, 18%) and Erythromycin-H(2)O (ERY-H(2)O, 24%). Antibiotics were removed more efficiently in primary treatment compared with those in secondary treatment.

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