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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;202(1):5-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2009.09.007.

Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review.

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University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109-5604, USA.

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  • Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep;205(3):236.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms that can be assessed in routine obstetric care. We evaluated articles in the English-language literature from 1980 through 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated the association between antepartum depressive symptoms and > or =1 risk factors. For each risk factor, 2 blinded, independent reviewers evaluated the overall trend of evidence. In total, 57 studies met eligibility criteria. Maternal anxiety, life stress, history of depression, lack of social support, unintended pregnancy, Medicaid insurance, domestic violence, lower income, lower education, smoking, single status, and poor relationship quality were associated with a greater likelihood of antepartum depressive symptoms in bivariate analyses. Life stress, lack of social support, and domestic violence continued to demonstrate a significant association in multivariate analyses. Our results demonstrate several correlates that are consistently related to an increased risk of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

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