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Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Jan;48(1):1-27. doi: 10.3109/15563650903544124.

Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies.

Author information

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. mtcchloe@yahoo.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) in the management of poisoned patients.

METHODS:

We performed a systematic review of the literature with no time or language restriction. The electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 1, 2009 (Medline, EMBASE, ISI web of science, Biological abstract, LILACS, ChemIndex, Toxnet, and Proquest). We also examined the references of identified articles and the gray literature. The target interventions eligible for inclusion were administration of any IFE before, during, or after poisoning in human or animals. All types of studies were reviewed. Eligibility for inclusion and study quality scores, based on criteria by Jadad and the STROBE statement, were evaluated by independent investigators. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included neurologic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic variables, as well as adverse effects.

RESULTS:

Of the 938 publications identified by the search strategies, 74 met the inclusion criteria. We identified 23 animal trials, 50 human, and 1 animal case reports. Overall, the quality of evidence was weak and significant heterogeneity prevented data pooling. Available data suggest some benefits of IFE in bupivacaine, verapamil, chlorpromazine, and some tricyclic antidepressants and beta-blockers toxicity. No trial assessed the safety of IFE in the treatment of acute poisoning.

CONCLUSION:

The evidence for the efficacy of IFE in reducing mortality and improving hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and neurological parameters in the poisoned patients is solely based on animal studies and human case reports. The safety of IFE has not been established.

PMID:
20095812
DOI:
10.3109/15563650903544124
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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