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Am J Sports Med. 1991 Jan-Feb;19(1):56-60.

Soccer injuries to the brain. A neuropsychologic study of former soccer players.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital, University Clinic Oslo, Norway.


Thirty-seven former soccer players of the National Football Team of Norway were individually examined with an extensive battery of psychologic tests. The neuropsychologic examination demonstrated mild to severe deficits regarding attention, concentration, memory, and judgment in 81% of the players. This may indicate some degree of permanent organic brain damage, probably the cumulative result of repeated traumas from heading the ball.

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