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Theor Appl Genet. 2010 Apr;120(6):1253-63. doi: 10.1007/s00122-009-1253-5. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Mapping candidate QTLs related to plant persistency in red clover.

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All-Russian Williams Fodder Crop Research Institute, 141055, Lobnya, Moscow Region, Russia.


Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a diploid (2n = 14), self-incompatible legume that is widely cultivated as a forage legume in cold geographical regions. Because it is a short-lived perennial species, improvement of plant persistency is the most important objective for red clover breeding. To develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) approach for red clover, we identified candidate QTLs related to plant persistency. Two full-sib mapping populations, 272 x WF1680 and HR x R130, were used for QTL identification. Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Fusarium species, as well as to winter hardiness, was investigated in the laboratory and in field experiments in Moscow region (Russia), and Sapporo (Japan). With the genotype data derived from microsatellite and other DNA markers, candidate QTLs were identified by simple interval mapping (SIM), Kruskal-Wallis analysis (KW analysis) and genotype matrix mapping (GMM). A total of 10 and 23 candidate QTL regions for plant persistency were identified in the 272 x WF1680 and the HR x R130 mapping populations, respectively. The QTLs identified by multiple mapping approaches were mapped on linkage group (LG) 3 and LG6. The significant QTL interactions identified by GMM explained the higher phenotypic variation than single effect QTLs. Identification of haplotypes having positive effect QTLs in each parent were first demonstrated in this study for pseudo-testcross mapping populations in plant species using experimental data.

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