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Malar J. 2010 Jan 19;9:21. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-21.

Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania.

Author information

1
Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, Muheza, Tanzania.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance.

METHOD:

An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active.

RESULTS:

Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed), but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0). After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0) but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0). Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0). For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing.

CONCLUSION:

Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes PermaNet 3.0 showed limited improvement over PermaNet 2.0 against Culex quinquefasciatus.

PMID:
20085631
PMCID:
PMC2817703
DOI:
10.1186/1475-2875-9-21
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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