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Injury. 2009 Dec;40 Suppl 3:S27-31. doi: 10.1016/S0020-1383(09)70008-7.

Bone morphogenetic proteins in open fractures: past, present, and future.

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Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital, Suite 800, 55 Queen Street East, Toronto, Ontario, M5C 1R6, Canada.


The management of open fractures continues to be complicated by high rates of treatment failure and significant patient disability and dissatisfaction. The use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the treatment of open fractures has been assessed by a number of different clinical trials, both in the acute management of open fractures and in the delayed reconstruction of bone defects secondary to open fracture. This review describes the scientific basis for the use of BMPs in open fractures, reviews the current evidence for their use in open fractures, provides grades of recommendation for the different uses of BMPs in open fractures, and identifies important areas for additional research.

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