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Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jun;23(3):172-81. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Jan 18.

Anti-inflammatory effect of a selective IkappaB kinase-beta inhibitor in rat lung in response to LPS and cigarette smoke.

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Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.



IkappaB kinase (IKK) activates NF-kappaB which plays a pivotal role in pro-inflammatory response in the lung. NF-kappaB has been shown to be activated in alveolar macrophages and peripheral lungs of smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of a highly selective and novel IKKbeta/IKK2 inhibitor, PHA-408 [8-(5-chloro-2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)isonicotinamido)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[gamma]indazole-3-carboxamide], in lungs of rat in vivo.


Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were administered orally with PHA-408 (15 and 45 mg/kg) daily for 3 days and exposed to LPS aerosol (once on day 3, 2 h post-last PHA-408 administration) or cigarette smoke (CS; 2h after PHA-408 administration for 3 days). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 24 h after the last exposure, and lung inflammatory response and NF-kappaB activation were measured.


Oral administration of IKKbeta/IKK2 inhibitor PHA-408 significantly inhibited LPS- and CS-mediated neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of rats. The levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in BAL fluid (CINC-1) and lungs (IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and GM-CSF) were also reduced by PHA-408 administration in response to LPS or CS exposures. The reduced pro-inflammatory response in PHA-408-administered rats was associated with decreased nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in response to LPS or CS.


These results suggest that IKKbeta/IKK2 inhibitor PHA-408 is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent against LPS- and CS-mediated lung inflammation.

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