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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Apr;13(2):160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2009.12.009. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

Molecular strategies for phosphorylation-mediated regulation of response regulator activity.

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Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson, Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Piscataway, NJ, USA.


Response regulator (RR) proteins exploit different molecular surfaces in their inactive and active conformations for a variety of regulatory intramolecular and/or intermolecular protein-protein interactions that either inhibit or activate effector domain activities. This versatile strategy enables numerous regulatory mechanisms among RRs. The recent accumulation of structures of inactive and active forms of multidomain RRs and RR complexes has revealed many different domain arrangements that have provided insight into regulatory mechanisms. Although diversity is the rule, even among subfamily members containing homologous domains, several structural modes of interaction and mechanisms of regulation recur frequently. These themes involve interactions at the alpha4-beta5-alpha5 face of the receiver domain, modes of dimerization of receiver domains, and inhibitory or activating heterodomain interactions.

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