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J Vasc Surg. 2010 Apr;51(4 Suppl):21S-26S. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2009.09.066. Epub 2010 Jan 15.

Racial and ethnic differences in patterns of treatment for acute peripheral arterial disease in the United States, 1998-2006.

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CardioVascular Thoracic Institute, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.



Prior studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in rates of amputations for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the United States. We analyze whether there are underlying differences in the types of treatment provided to patients who are acutely hospitalized for PAD.


The 1998-2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to examine patterns of treatment. We considered a hospitalization an acute admission for PAD if (1) the primary diagnosis was PAD, and (2) the patient was admitted urgently or emergently or through an emergency department. Vascular interventions were designated as open bypass, endovascular intervention, or major amputation, defined as disarticulation at the ankle or higher amputation.


From 1998 through 2006, the likelihood of an endovascular procedure being performed during an acute hospitalization for PAD increased from 11.5% to 35.3%, and open vascular procedures decreased from 34.9% to 25.4%. The likelihood of a major amputation during an acute hospitalization for PAD decreased from 29.7% to 20.3%. Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than white patients to undergo amputation and were less likely to have an endovascular or open revascularization.


Use of endovascular procedures has increased and use of open vascular bypass has decreased in the inpatient treatment of acute PAD. Although the overall likelihood of amputation has decreased, racial and ethnic differences persist, with black and Hispanic patients experiencing a higher likelihood of amputation.

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