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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010 Jun;16(6):818-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation using myeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency.

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Section of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) deficiency is a rare combined immunodeficiency disease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment. Between June 1994 and February 2007, 30 children with MHC II deficiency underwent a total of 33 HSCT procedures. Median age at HSCT was 27 months. The stem cell source was unmanipulated bone marrow from HLA-identical related donors in 26 patients, one HLA antigen-mismatched bone marrow in 3 patients, and unrelated umbilical cord blood in 1 patient. Conditioning was with one of 3 myeloablative regimens--regimen A (18 patients): busulfan (Bu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and etoposide; regimen B (2 patients): Bu, Cy, and antithymocyte globulin (ATG); or regimen C (1 patient): CY and total body irradiation (TBI)--or with a reduced-intensity regimen (12 patients): fludarabine, melphalan, and ATG. The median CD34 cell dose was 8.3 x 10(6)/kg. Twenty patients experienced immune reconstitution and had sustained engraftment ranging from 9% to 100% for lymphoid lines and from 5% to 100% for myeloid lines that were significant to cure the disease. The overall disease-free survival rate was 66% and 76% after HLA-identical HSCT, with a median follow-up of 6.3 years, which is higher than previously reported. In HLA-identical transplant recipients, reliable donor stem cell engraftment and immune reconstitution were achieved through myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning. Further studies and long-term follow-up are needed to determine the appropriate conditioning regimen.

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