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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(4):284-300. doi: 10.1080/15287390903249230.

Toward a better understanding of pesticide dermal absorption: diffusion model analysis of parathion absorption in vitro and in vivo.

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James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0004, USA.


Human skin absorption of radiolabeled parathion was studied in vitro at specific doses (mass loadings) of 0.4, 4.0, 41, or 117 microg/cm(2), with and without occlusion. The compound was applied in small volumes of acetone solution to split-thickness skin. Permeation of radiolabel into the receptor solutions was monitored for 76 h, after which the tissue was dissected and analyzed for residual radioactivity. For the 3 lower doses, cumulative permeation after 76 h was approximately dose-proportional, ranging from 28.5-30.5% of applied dose (unoccluded) to 45.5-55.7% (occluded). Total absorption, calculated as receptor fluid plus dermis content, followed a similar pattern. Both permeation rate and total absorption continued to increase up to the highest dose tested, consistent with results from other laboratories. These results are compared with predictions from a previously developed skin diffusion model (Kasting et al., 2008a). The model predicted total absorption to within a factor of 1.4 at 0.4 microg/cm(2) and 1.6 at 4 microg/cm(2), but substantially underpredicted absorption at the 2 higher doses. The analysis showed that parathion partitioned more favorably into the stratum corneum than the diffusion model prediction. Nevertheless, comparison of the model predictions to a previously reported human study showed that the skin absorption model, when corrected for surface losses occurring in vivo, satisfactorily described in vivo dermal absorption of parathion applied at 4 microg/cm(2) to various body sites.

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