Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Apr;17(5):1103-11.

Doppler color flow "proximal isovelocity surface area" method for estimating volume flow rate: effects of orifice shape and machine factors.

Author information

Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine.

Erratum in

  • J Am Coll Cardiol 1993 May;21(6):1537.


Previously described Doppler color flow mapping methods for estimating the severity of valvular regurgitation have focused on the distal jet. In this study, a newer Doppler color flow technique, focusing on the flow proximal to an orifice, was used. This method identifies a proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) by displaying an aliasing interface. Volume flow rate (cm3/s) can be calculated as PISA (cm2) x aliasing velocity (cm/s). For planar circular orifices, a hemi-elliptic model accurately approximated the shape of PISA. Clinically, however, orifice shapes may be noncircular. In vitro flow experiments (n = 226) using orifices of various shapes (ellipse, square, triangle, star, rectangle) were performed. Volume flow rate calculated using a hemi-elliptic model for PISA was accurate, with average percent differences from actual flow rate = +4.3% for a square, -4.2% for a triangle, -4.7% for a star, -4.5% for an ellipse and -2.8% for a rectangle. However, average percent differences for calculated volume flow rates using a hemispheric model for PISA shape ranged from -11.6% (square) to -34.8% (rectangle). In addition, to evaluate whether PISA is influenced by machine factors, in vitro studies (n = 83) were performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center