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J Neurosci. 2010 Jan 13;30(2):505-14. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4622-09.2010.

Olfactory dysfunction correlates with amyloid-beta burden in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

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Emotional Brain Institute and Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA.


Alzheimer's disease often results in impaired olfactory perceptual acuity-a potential biomarker of the disorder. However, the usefulness of olfactory screens to serve as informative indicators of Alzheimer's is precluded by a lack of knowledge regarding why the disease impacts olfaction. We addressed this question by assaying olfactory perception and amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition throughout the olfactory system in mice that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid-beta precursor protein. Such mice displayed progressive olfactory deficits that mimic those observed clinically-some evident at 3 months of age. Also, at 3 months of age, we observed nonfibrillar Abeta deposition within the olfactory bulb-earlier than deposition within any other brain region. There was also a correlation between olfactory deficits and the spatial-temporal pattern of Abeta deposition. Therefore, nonfibrillar, versus fibrillar, Abeta-related mechanisms likely contribute to early olfactory perceptual loss in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, these results present the odor cross-habituation test as a powerful behavioral assay, which reflects Abeta deposition and thus may serve to monitor the efficacy of therapies aimed at reducing Abeta.

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