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Dev Biol. 2010 Mar 15;339(2):418-28. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.01.003. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

PCP effector gene Inturned is an important regulator of cilia formation and embryonic development in mammals.

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Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


The PCP effector gene Inturned regulates planar cell polarity (PCP) and wing hair formation in Drosophila wings. In order to understand the roles for Inturned in mammalian embryonic development, we generated a null mutant allele for the mouse homologue of Inturned (Intu) via gene-targeting in ES cells. Mouse Intu null mutants are homozygous lethal at midgestation, exhibiting multiple defects including neural tube closure defects, abnormal dorsal/ventral patterning of the central nervous system and abnormal anterior-posterior patterning of the limbs resulting in severe polydactyly (7-9 digits each limb). The developmental processes affected by the Intu mutation are under the control of Hh signaling through Gli-family transcription factors. We found that in Intu mutant embryos the expression of Gli1 and Ptch1, two direct transcriptional targets of Hh signaling, is down-regulated, and the proteolytic processing of Gli3 is compromised. We further demonstrate that Intu plays significant roles in the formation of primary cilia both during embryonic development and in cultured fibroblasts. Finally, a cytoplasmic GFP-Intu fusion protein efficiently rescues the ciliogenic defects in Intu mutant cells. In conclusion, we show that PCP effector gene Intu is an important regulator of cilia formation, Hh signal transduction, and embryonic development in mammals.

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