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Version 2. PLoS Curr. 2009 Dec 18 [revised 2010 Apr 19];2:RRN1138.

Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental US.

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Oregon State University; Princeton University and NIH/FIC; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA and Princeton University.


Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions.

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