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Neurotoxicology. 2010 Mar;31(2):204-14. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2010.01.001. Epub 2010 Jan 12.

Differential expression of TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels and their potential role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in organotypic hippocampal culture.

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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Auckland, New Zealand.


TRPM2 and TPPV4 channels, two members of TRP channel family, are known to be widely expressed in the brain but their exact expression pattern and function are not well understood. Due to their high Ca(2+) permeability and gating by reactive oxygen species (TRPM2), or cell swelling, low pH and high temperature (TRPV4), they are likely to be involved in cell damage associated with various brain pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of these channels and their potential role in oxidative stress-induced cell damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, a model that retains the complex interaction between neurons and astrocytes. Channel expression was confirmed with RT-PCR and western blotting, while immunocytochemistry demonstrated TRPM2 in CA1-CA3 pyramidal neurons and TRPV4 in astrocytes. Oxidative stress induced by exogenous application of H(2)O(2) (600 microM) caused preferential damage of pyramidal neurons, while oxidative stress evoked with mercaptosuccinate (MCS; 400 microM) or buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; 4 microM) mainly damaged astrocytes, as identified by propidium iodide fluorescence. Antioxidants (Trolox 500 microM; MitoE 2 microM) reduced both neuronal and astrocytic cell death. Blockers of TRPV4 channels (Gd(3+) 500 microM; Ruthenium red 1 microM) increased the viability of astrocytes following MCS or BSO treatments, consistent with the expression pattern of these channels. Blockers of TRPM2 channels clotrimazole (20 microM), N-(p-amylcinnomoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA, 25 microM) or flufenamic acid (FFA, 200 microM) failed to protect pyramidal neurons from damage caused by exogenous H(2)O(2), and increased damage of these neurons caused by MCS and BSO. The differential expression of stress-sensitive TRPM2 and TRPV4 channels in hippocampal neurons and astrocytes that show distinct differences in vulnerability to different forms of oxidative stress suggests the specific involvement of these channels in oxidative stress-induced cell damage. However, the exact relationship between TRPM2 channel activation and cell death still remains to be determined due to the lack of protective effects of TRPM2 channel blockers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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