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Oncogene. 2010 Mar 18;29(11):1702-16. doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.464. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

SP600125 suppresses Cdk1 and induces endoreplication directly from G2 phase, independent of JNK inhibition.

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Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, CA, USA.


Cell cycle controls ensure that DNA replication (S phase) follows mitosis resulting in two precise copies of the genome. A failure of the control mechanisms can result in multiple rounds of DNA replication without cell division. In endoreplication, cells with replicated genomes bypass mitosis, then replicate their DNA again, resulting in polyploidy. Endoreplication from G2 phase lacks all hallmarks of mitosis. Using synchronized cells, we show that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevents the entry of cells into mitosis and leads to endoreplication of DNA from G2 phase. We show that cells proceed from G2 phase to replicate their DNA in the absence of mitosis. This effect of SP600125 is independent of its suppression of JNK activity. Instead, the inhibitory effect of SP600125 on mitotic entry predominantly occurs upstream of Aurora A kinase and Polo-like kinase 1, resulting in a failure to remove the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1. Importantly, our results directly show that the inhibition of Cdk1 activity and the persistence of Cdk2 activity in G2 cells induces endoreplication without mitosis. Furthermore, endoreplication from G2 phase is independent of p53 control.

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