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J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 12;285(11):8244-55. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.054999. Epub 2010 Jan 8.

Silencing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibits acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and attenuates JNK activation and loss of glutamate cysteine ligase and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1.

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1
University of Southern California Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-9121, USA.

Abstract

Previously we demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a central role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. In the current work, we examined other possible signaling pathways that may also contribute to APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP treatment to mice caused glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) activation and translocation to mitochondria during the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury ( approximately 1 h). The silencing of GSK-3beta, but not Akt-2 (protein kinase B) or glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha (GSK-3alpha), using antisense significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury. The silencing of GSK-3beta affected several key pathways important in conferring protection against APAP-induced liver injury. APAP treatment was observed to promote the loss of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) in liver. The silencing of GSK-3beta decreased the loss of hepatic GCL, and promoted greater GSH recovery in liver following APAP treatment. Silencing JNK1 and -2 also prevented the loss of GCL. APAP treatment also resulted in GSK-3beta translocation to mitochondria and the degradation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) in mitochondrial membranes in liver. The silencing of GSK-3beta reduced Mcl-1 degradation caused by APAP treatment. The silencing of GSK-3beta also resulted in an inhibition of the early phase (0-2 h), and blunted the late phase (after 4 h) of JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria in liver following APAP treatment. Taken together our results suggest that activation of GSK-3beta is a key mediator of the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury through modulating GCL and Mcl-1 degradation, as well as JNK activation in liver.

PMID:
20061376
PMCID:
PMC2832976
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M109.054999
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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