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J Comp Neurol. 2010 Mar 15;518(6):839-50. doi: 10.1002/cne.22245.

The cortistatin gene PSS2 rather than the somatostatin gene PSS1 is strongly expressed in developing avian autonomic neurons.

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Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA.


Somatostatin and cortistatin are neuromodulators with divergent expression patterns and biological roles. Whereas expression and function of genes encoding somatostatin (PSS1) and the related peptide cortistatin (PSS2) have been studied in detail for the central nervous system (CNS) and immune system, relatively little is known about their expression patterns in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We compare the expression patterns of PSS1 and PSS2 in chicken embryos. At E14, PSS1 is higher in the CNS versus PNS, whereas PSS2 is higher in the PNS. During early development, PSS1 is transiently expressed in lumbar sympathetic ganglia and is detectable at low levels throughout the development of dorsal root and ciliary ganglia. In contrast, PSS2 expression increases as development progresses in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia, whereas levels in ciliary ganglia by E8 are more than 100-fold higher than in sympathetic ganglia. Activin, which induces somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in ciliary ganglion neurons in vivo and in vitro, controls PSS2 expression by stabilizing PSS2 but not PSS1 mRNA. We conclude that much of the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the developing avian peripheral nervous system is actually cortistatin, the PSS2 product, as opposed to true somatostatin, which is the PSS1 product. The identification of PSS2 as the predominantly expressed somatostatin gene family member in avian autonomic neurons provides a molecular basis for further functional and pharmacological studies.

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