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Exp Aging Res. 2010 Jan-Mar;36(1):105-22. doi: 10.1080/03610730903417960.

Supplementing cognitive aging: a selective review of the effects of ginkgo biloba and a number of everyday nutritional substances.

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Division of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.


This review concerns a number of substances that have been receiving much attention, particularly in the media, for their potential to protect against age-related cognitive decline, and a focus is placed upon recent findings. Omega-3 fatty acids appear to play important roles in preserving neuronal structure and function and minimizing cognitive decline, whereas the antioxidant vitamins C and E appear to be particularly beneficial for combating age-related oxidative stress when administered in combination. Fruit and vegetable polyphenols also offer great potential, although most research thus far has involved rodents. Finally, there is mixed evidence regarding the cognitive enhancing properties of Ginkgo biloba, and the B vitamins folate and cobalamin, with all of these requiring further investigation.

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