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Opt Express. 2009 Dec 7;17(25):22393-400. doi: 10.1364/OE.17.022393.

Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides.

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan.


We report on the fabrication of chalcogenide glass (Ag-As(2)Se(3)) photonic crystal waveguides and the first detailed characterization of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. The waveguides, fabricated by e-beam lithography and ICP etching exhibit typical transmission spectra of photonic crystal waveguides, and exhibit high optical nonlinearity. Nonlinear phase shift of 1.5pi through self-phase modulation is observed at 0.78 W input peak power in a 400 microm long device. The effective nonlinear parameter gamma(eff) estimated from this result reaches 2.6 x 10(4) W(-1)m(-1). Four-wave mixing is also observed in the waveguide, while two-photon absorption at optical communication wavelengths is sufficiently small and the corresponding figure of merit is larger than 11.

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