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Vet Clin Pathol. 2010 Jun;39(2):221-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2009.00199.x. Epub 2009 Dec 30.

Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Norwegian crossbreed grower pigs.

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Department of Production Animal Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N-0033 Oslo, Norway.



Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including environment and age. Reference intervals for Norwegian grower pigs are lacking, and previously published reference intervals for similar pigs from other countries are now outdated due to significant changes in management and breeding on the pig farms.


The aim of this study was to determine updated reference intervals for hematologic and biochemical analytes in healthy crossbred grower pigs, and to compare the results among 3 different farms.


Blood samples were collected from 104 clinically healthy pigs of the most common Norwegian crossbreed (Landrace Yorkshire sow x Landrace Duroc boar). The pigs were 12-16 weeks old, weighed 30-50 kg, of both sexes, and lived on 3 farms in eastern Norway. Automated hematologic and biochemical analysis were performed using ADVIA 2120 and ADVIA 1650 analyzers.


Five samples were excluded because of hemolysis (1) or outliers (4). Reference intervals were calculated using parametric or nonparametric methods, depending on data distribution. Mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were tabulated.


The reference intervals calculated in this study will be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease in this widespread crossbreed pig. Compared with previously published reference values, reference intervals for total WBC count, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase activities, and albumin, bilirubin, and urea concentrations in this study differed notably.

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