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Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2010 Jan-Feb;2(1):35-47. doi: 10.1002/wnan.59.

Quinoline-n-butylcyanoacrylate-based nanoparticles for brain targeting for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Advanced Radiological Sciences, Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. padmakar.kulkarni@utsouthwestern.edu

Abstract

A survey of research activity on nanoparticles (NPs) based on polymeric devices that could cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is given along with the presentation of our own data on the development of NPs of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (BCA) for brain delivery to aid the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly people, the most prevalent form of dementia. Typical data are presented on in vivo detection of amyloid peptides (A beta) (amyloid plaques) that are used as targets for developing the biological markers for the diagnosis of AD. In order to develop efficient in vivo probes, polymeric n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (PBCA) NPs have been prepared and encapsulated with the radio-labeled amyloid affinity drug (125)I-clioquinol (CQ, 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline) to improve the transport to brain and amyloid plaque retention of (125)I-CQ using the NPs of PBCA. The (125)I-CQ discriminately binds to the AD post-mortem brain tissue homogenates versus control. (125)I-CQ-PBCA NPs labeled the A beta plaques from the AD human post-mortem frontal cortical sections on paraffin-fixed slides. Storage phosphor imaging verified preferential uptake by AD brain sections compared to cortical control sections. The (125)I-CQ-PBCA NPs crossed the BBB in wild type mouse, giving an increased brain uptake measured in terms of % ID/g i.e., injected dose compared to (125)I-CQ. Brain retention of (125)I-CQ-PBCA NPs was significantly increased in the AD transgenic mice (APP/PS1) and in mice injected with aggregated A beta 42 peptide versus age-matched wild type controls. The results of this study are verified by in vivo storage phosphor imaging and validated by histopathological staining of plaques and select metal ions, viz. Fe(2+) and Cu(2+). The (125)I-CQ-PBCA NPs had more efficient brain entry and rapid clearance in normal mice and enhanced the retention in AD mouse brain demonstrating the ideal in vivo imaging characteristics. The (125)I-CQ-PBCA NPs exhibited specificity for A beta plaques both in vitro and in vivo. This combination offered radio-iodinated CQ-PBCA NPs as the promising delivery vehicle for in vivo single photon emission tomography (SPECT) ((123)I) or PET ((124)I) amyloid imaging agent. The importance of the topic in relation to brain delivery and other similar type of work published in this area are covered to highlight the importance of this research to medical disciplines.

PMID:
20049829
DOI:
10.1002/wnan.59
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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