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Psychiatry Investig. 2009 Sep;6(3):150-5. doi: 10.4306/pi.2009.6.3.150. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Comparison of Clinical Features and Personality Dimensions between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Normal Control.

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Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.



Personality dimension is considered as a risk factor of depression. This study was to compare aggression, impulsivity, hopelessness, and TCI (temperament and character dimensions) between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal controls.


A total of 56 MDD patients and the same number of normal controls who were matched for age, gender, and education were recruited. All subjects completed the following questionnaires; Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th Version (BIS-11), and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI).


MDD patients were significantly higher scores in anger, hostility of AQ, BHS, motor impulsivity of BIS-11, and Harm Avoidances (HA) of TCI with all subscales of HA than normal controls, whereas novelty seeking 1 (NS1) (Exploratory of NS), Reward Dependence (RD) with RD3 (Attachment) . RD4 (Dependence), Self-Directedness (SD) with most subscales of SD, Cooperativeness (CO), and ST3 (Spiritual Acceptance) showed lower scores than normal controls. Moreover, BHS and HA, BIS and NS showed moderate positive correlation in MDD patients, while BHS and SD, HA and SD were negatively correlated.


The present study showed unique clinical features, especially personality dimensions of patients with MDD. Our results could be applicable to suggest treatment process and to predict one's prognosis for depression in that psychological properties are important for drug compliance and treatment response.


Aggression; Hopelessness; Impulsiveness; Major depressive disorder; Temperament and Character Inventory

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