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PLoS Pathog. 2009 Dec;5(12):e1000520. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000520. Epub 2009 Dec 24.

Chemokine coreceptor signaling in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis.

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Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA.


Binding of the HIV-1 envelope to its chemokine coreceptors mediates two major biological events: membrane fusion and signaling transduction. The fusion process has been well studied, yet the role of chemokine coreceptor signaling in viral infection has remained elusive through the past decade. With the recent demonstration of the signaling requirement for HIV latent infection of resting CD4 T cells, the issue of coreceptor signaling needs to be thoroughly revisited. It is likely that virus-mediated signaling events may facilitate infection in various immunologic settings in vivo where cellular conditions need to be primed; in other words, HIV may exploit the chemokine signaling network shared among immune cells to gain access to downstream cellular components, which can then serve as effective tools to break cellular barriers. This virus-hijacked aberrant signaling process may in turn facilitate pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize past and present studies on HIV coreceptor signaling. We also discuss possible roles of coreceptor signaling in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis.

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