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Cryobiology. 2010 Apr;60(2):240-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.12.004. Epub 2009 Dec 28.

Analysis of supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) activity of flavonol glycosides.

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Research Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.


Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) contain four kinds of flavonol glycosides with high supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) activities. These flavonol glycosides have very similar structures, but their supercooling-facilitating activities are very different. In this study, we analyzed the supercooling-facilitating activities of 12 kinds of flavonol glycosides in order to determine the chemical structures that might affect supercooling-facilitating activity. All of the flavonol glycosides tested showed supercooling-facilitating activity, although the magnitudes of activity differed among the compounds. It was clear that the combination of the position of attachment of the glycosyl moiety, the kind of attached glycosyl moiety and the structure of aglycone determined the magnitude of anti-ice nucleation activity. However, there is still some ambiguity preventing the exact identification of features that affect the magnitude of supercooling-facilitating activity.

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