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Liver Transpl. 2010 Jan;16(1):56-63. doi: 10.1002/lt.21906.

Pregnancy outcomes among liver transplant recipients in the United States: a nationwide case-control analysis.

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  • 1Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


Liver transplant recipients and their infants may have an increased risk of obstetric complications. Our objective was to describe pregnancy outcomes in women with a prior transplant from a population-based perspective. We analyzed the 1993-2005 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to identify obstetric hospitalizations among transplant recipients (n = 206) and controls matched by age, hospital, and year (n = 4060). The effect of prior transplantation on maternal and fetal outcomes was evaluated with regression models with adjustments for patient and hospital factors, including admission to a transplant center. Between 1993 and 2005, 146 delivery admissions among liver transplant recipients were identified. Cesarean deliveries were more common among transplant recipients (38% versus 24%; P = 0.0001); however, this difference was not significant after multivariate adjustment [OR (odds ratio) = 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-1.27]. Maternal mortality was similar among cases and controls (0% versus 0.02%; P = 1.00), but transplant patients had higher rates of fetal mortality (6.3% versus 2.0%; P = 0.0006), antepartum admission (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.59-3.25), and maternal (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.82-3.80) and fetal complications (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.68-3.70). Gestational hypertension (30% versus 9%; P < 0.0001) and postpartum hemorrhage (8% versus 3%; P = 0.009) were more common among transplant recipients; their infants had higher rates of prematurity (27% versus 11%; P < 0.0001), distress (10% versus 5%; P = 0.005), and growth restriction (5% versus 2%; P = 0.05) but not congenital anomalies. Hospitalization in a transplant center ( approximately 50%) was associated with similar obstetric outcomes. In conclusion, although most pregnancy outcomes are favorable, liver transplant recipients and their infants have an increased risk of obstetric complications. Additional studies evaluating mechanisms aimed at reducing these complications are necessary.

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