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Pediatr Res. 2010 Apr;67(4):357-62. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d026da.

Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development.

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1
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre and Radiology and Physics Unit, University College London Institute of Child Health, and Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London WC1N 3JH, United Kingdom. e.isaacs@ich.ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

Although observational findings linking breast milk to higher scores on cognitive tests may be confounded by factors associated with mothers' choice to breastfeed, it has been suggested that one or more constituents of breast milk facilitate cognitive development, particularly in preterms. Because cognitive scores are related to head size, we hypothesized that breast milk mediates cognitive effects by affecting brain growth. We used detailed data from a randomized feeding trial to calculate percentage of expressed maternal breast milk (%EBM) in the infant diet of 50 adolescents. MRI scans were obtained (mean age=15 y 9 mo), allowing volumes of total brain (TBV) and white and gray matter (WMV, GMV) to be calculated. In the total group, %EBM correlated significantly with verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ); in boys, with all IQ scores, TBV and WMV. VIQ was, in turn, correlated with WMV and, in boys only, additionally with TBV. No significant relationships were seen in girls or with gray matter. These data support the hypothesis that breast milk promotes brain development, particularly white matter growth. The selective effect in males accords with animal and human evidence regarding gender effects of early diet. Our data have important neurobiological and public health implications and identify areas for future mechanistic study.

PMID:
20035247
PMCID:
PMC2939272
DOI:
10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d026da
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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