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J Comp Neurol. 2010 Mar 1;518(5):722-40. doi: 10.1002/cne.22241.

Regional and subcellular distribution of HDAC4 in mouse brain.

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Department of Biology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 32306, USA.


Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are part of a system that links epigenetic control of gene expression to a variety of environmental stimuli. Some HDACs, including HDAC4, shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus in response to physiological cues such as calcium signaling. HDAC4 mRNA is enriched in the brain, but the regional and subcellular protein expression pattern of HDAC4 is not known. Here we show that HDAC4 is more highly expressed in some brain regions than in others. HDAC4 is present in the perikaryial cytoplasm of most neurons but its nuclear localization is variable. In some areas, such as the dentate gyrus, nuclear expression is not detectable, whereas in other areas some neuronal nuclei contain HDAC4 immunoreactivity whereas others do not. In the cytoplasm, HDAC4 immunoreactivity is punctate. Some of these puncta are present in dendritic spines where the strongest immunoreactivity is associated with the postsynaptic density. These data demonstrate that the regional and subcellular distribution of HDAC4 is heterogeneous and raise the possibilities that HDAC4 acts on nonhistone substrates in dendritic spines or that it shuttles between spine and nucleus to coordinate synaptic activity with gene expression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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