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Environ Monit Assess. 2010 Nov;170(1-4):585-98. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1259-0. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 139 Oak Creek Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Jennifer.Duringer@oregonstate.edu

Abstract

Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

PMID:
20033284
DOI:
10.1007/s10661-009-1259-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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