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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jun;54(2):191-6. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c99226.

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C seroprevalence in children receiving antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in China, 2005-2009.

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Division of Treatment and Care, National Center for AIDS/STI Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.



Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) may compromise pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in China. In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in children receiving ART and associated factors.


Patients were selected from HIV-1-infected children under age 16 enrolled in China National Pediatric ART Cohort since July 2005. Medical assessments, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HCV antibody serologies, and transaminase levels were obtained for analysis.


A total of 53 of 1082 children tested were HBsAg seropositive [4.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6% to 6.2%], and 90 of 938 children tested were anti-HCV antibody positive (9.6%; 95% CI: 7.7% to 11.5%). No other serologic assays were performed for HBV detection. Age was associated with HBV coinfection in univariate analysis; older children were more likely to be HBsAg positive. Multivariate analysis revealed that children infected with HIV through transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products were more likely to be anti-HCV antibody positive than those infected with HIV through other routes (adjusted odds ratio = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.3% to 11.7%).


The high prevalence of HBV and HCV coinfection in HIV-infected children in China receiving ART demands routine screening for viral hepatitis coinfection, intensive prevention of childhood HBV and HCV transmission, and modification of the management of pediatric HIV infection.

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