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J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16(6):840-5. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

Association between arterial stiffness and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Japanese general population.

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Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Metabolic Medicine, Kagoshima University, Japan.



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although it has yet to be established whether CKD is an independent risk factor for arterial stiffness in community residents. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the general population.


We studied 881 consecutively enrolled subjects undergoing health checkups. CAVI was calculated automatically from the pulse volume record, blood pressure and the vascular length from the heart to the ankle. CKD was evaluated by the eGFR.


The distribution of eGFR was as follows: 241 with eGFR (mL/min/1.73m(2)) > or =90; 572 with eGFR 60-89; 65 with eGFR 30-59; 3 with eGFR 15-29; 0 with eGFR <15. Linear regression analysis showed that CAVI was negatively correlated significantly with eGFR, while multiple regression analysis using CAVI as an objective variable, adjusted for conventional atherosclerotic risk factors and eGFR as explanatory variables, demonstrated that CAVI was an independent determinant of eGFR. We also showed that stepwise increments of CAVI occurred with progressive deterioration of CKD.


CAVI was independently correlated with eGFR indicating that CKD is associated with arterial stiffness in the general population.

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