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J Surg Res. 2011 May 15;167(2):223-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.08.030. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

Evaluation of fundamental critical care course in Kenya: knowledge, attitude, and practice.

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Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Grady Memorial Hospital, Glenn Memorial Building, 69 Jesse Hill Jr. Ave., Suite No. 315, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.



Critical care training for medical personnel is crucial for the survival of the highest acuity patients. The Fundamental Critical Care Course (FCCS), a critical care course developed by the Society of Critical Care Medicine, permits course adaption and, thus, has potential for global dissemination. The FCCS course was provided in two Kenyan hospitals after minimal adaption. Participant knowledge and confidence gain as well as FCCS applicability to an African context were evaluated.


Questionnaires and a multiple-choice test were administered to assess knowledge, attitude, and self-reported confidence or self-efficacy. For applicability, the pre-course questionnaire assessed participant expectations and existing levels of confidence/knowledge in the care of the critically ill patient. Post-course, the participant evaluated the overall quality of the course, lectures, and skill stations along with context applicability questions.


There were 100 participants, 45 doctors, 45 nurses, and 10 clinical officers. There was a 22.7% gain in the mean test score (P < 0.0001) after the course, with 98% of participants showing improvement. Confidence to perform new skills post-course, or self-efficacy, was demonstrated by a median of 4 or greater on a Likert scale of 5 (most confident) in 10 of 12 clinical scenarios and in 11 of 14 new procedures. There was a consistency between areas reported as needed expertise, and participant evaluation of similar lecture and skill station's quality and appropriateness. The most common areas reported were mechanical ventilation, patient monitoring, and their related procedures.


The FCCS course met participant's expectations and was reported as applicable for the Kenyan context with minimal adaption. Post-course, knowledge improved and confidence increased for implementation of new skills in clinical care situations. We confirmed the effectiveness and relevancy of the FCCS course for other resource-constrained health care settings.

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