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Pediatr Int. 2010 Aug;52(4):557-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.03020.x.

Comprehensive genetic analysis of overlapping syndromes of RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway.

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Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Institute of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.



Germline mutations in several members of RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway cause clinically similar genetic disorders, including Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Each of these syndromes has a wide spectrum of molecular etiology. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive genetic analysis of RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in these syndromes.


Three patients with NS and two patients with CS/CFC were examined. Peripheral blood samples were collected from all patients as well as from 100 healthy Japanese volunteers. The protein phosphatase, non-receptor type II (PTPN11), KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, Son of Sevenless (SOS1) and MEK1genes were analyzed.


In a patient with a severe Noonan phenotype, a rare PTPN11 mutation was detected: A to G transition at position 172, causing an N58D substitution within the N-SH2 domain. In a CS/CFC patient no HRAS mutations were found, but a novel SOS1 missense mutation was found: A to G transition at position 473, causing a T158A substitution within domain of histone-like fold (HF).


A case mimicking CS with SOS1 T158A substitution, which has not been reported previously in CS, revealed the complex relationship between the genotype and phenotype of overlapping syndromes of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway.

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