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Aquat Toxicol. 2010 Mar 1;96(4):298-307. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.11.011. Epub 2009 Nov 22.

Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.

Author information

1
Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. elin.lundstrom@itm.su.se

Abstract

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology.

PMID:
20022642
DOI:
10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.11.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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